The causative agent of congenital syphilis is the spirochete, Treponema pallidum, which is passed from mother to child in-utero (vertical transmission). Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis occurs in up to 80% of cases in untreated mothers. Early congenital syphilis is defined as a condition affecting an infant or child (< 2 years) whose mother had untreated or inadequately treated syphilis at delivery, regardless of signs in the infant. . Late congenital syphilis is a condition that manifests from third year of life onwards following vertically acquired infection.