Emergomyces species (formerly called Emmonsia species) are a group of fungi that opportunistically cause disease among persons with weakened immune systems worldwide – Emergomyces africanus is a newly-discovered fungus within this group and so far has only been found in southern Africa – The burden of disease caused by this fungus is very small (fewer than 100 cases total to date) compared to other opportunistic infections that affect persons with advanced HIV disease, e.g. TB and cryptococcosis. – E. africanus is a thermally-dimorphic fungus i.e. grows as a filamentous (thread-like) mould in the environment and as a yeast in infected human tissue. – The environmental reservoir for this fungus is not yet known; however, it is presumed to be soil. – Further studies are needed to establish the natural reservoir for this fungus.