The NICD is a valuable resource available to all universities and technikons, and provides training for medical registrars, intern medical scientists and intern medical technologists in public health-oriented communicable diseases. The training function is both in laboratory science as well as in field epidemiology for which the Field Epidemiology Laboratory Training programme (FELTP) has been developed. The NICD is also home to the Africa Centre for Integrated Laboratory Training (ACILT), offering training courses for HIV and TB testing, among others, to Southern African countries. Opportunities to train in unique settings such as the BSL-4 laboratory can also only be offered by the NICD.

The Polio Research Foundation (PRF) Training centre is located at the NICD, and offers a large auditorium, named in memory of James Gear, for lectures, as well as two smaller lecture theatres. The PRF training centre also houses the NICD library. There are various labs that form part of the training centre – a molecular lab, virology lab and microbiology lab to name but a few.