Vaccines and Immunology

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) is a reputable resource of knowledge and expertise in regionally relevant communicable diseases to the South African Government, to SADC countries, and to the African continent.

Should you wish to access more information about any of the diseases, associated vaccinations, or details of immunology, please explore the list of disease centres below and make your selection. Each of these centres will provide you with a host of information pertaining to the disease, vaccination, and immunology.

If you require additional input or wish to report any suspected disease to the NICD, please visit our contact page


The Centre for Enteric Diseases (CED) focuses on the surveillance of pathogens associated with diarrhoea and enteric fevers, and actively assists with the investigation and response to enteric disease outbreaks (including food- and water-borne disease outbreaks). The CED also provides specialised reference laboratory testing for enteric bacteria and viruses, including potential causes of food- and water-borne outbreaks.

Laboratory characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates from Zimbabwe, 2009-2017

Mashe T, Gudza-Mugabe M, Tarupiwa A, Munemo E, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Smouse SL, Sooka A, Stray-Pedersen B, Smith MA, Mbanga J


Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in Zimbabwe with recurrent outbreaks reported since 2009. To provide guidance on appropriate treatment choice in order to minimise the morbidity and mortality of typhoid fever and prevent large scale outbreaks, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, prevalence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) H58 haplotype and molecular subtypes of S. Typhi from outbreak strains isolated from 2009 to 2017 in Zimbabwe and compared these to isolates from neighbouring African countries. Read Publication