What is Nipah Virus Infection?
Nipah virus infection is cause by the zoonotic virus, Nipah virus (NiV), a member of the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is related to the bat-borne virus, Hendra virus and fruit bats (genus Pteropus) are known to be natural host and reservoir of NiV.
Spillover to animals and the human population can occur and results in a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic (subclinical) infection to acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis. Once it spreads to people, human-to-human spread can also occur, although this has been very limited involving close contacts. The reported case fatality rate in documented outbreaks between 1999 and 2018 was 40-70%.