Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a number of different diseases characterised by the presence of fever, rash and bleeding. Viral haemorrhagic fevers are caused by viruses belonging to four families of RNA viruses: the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flaviviridae. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic South Africa. Ebola, Marburg haemorrhagic fevers and Lassa fever occur in central and West Africa. Human cases of hanta virus do not occur. Typically, VHF is associated with high fatality rates in humans. Haemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses cause increases permeability of blood vessels and bleeding. This may present as a petechial rash, bleeding of internal organs, or bleeding from bodily orifices.